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A wide range of application requires fluids and this is supplied by any system and referred to as plumbing. Pipes, valves, tanks and plumbing fixtures are the systems used in plumbing in order to transport fluids. Fittings that are used to connect straight pipe or tubing sections that adapt to the resulted shape and regulation of fluid flow are plumbing fixtures. Important aspects of plumbing and piping systems are fittings and require money, materials, tools and time in order to install them. During piping and plumbing there are some common fitting used and they include; elbow, nipple, union, reducer, double-tapped bushing, cross, cap, barb, plug, coupling among others. A cap is usually gas or liquid tight that covers the open end of a pipe. A plug fits inside a pipe segment or fitting.

The regulation of the flow of liquid and gases is done by valves which is categorized by applications like throttling, isolation and non-return. The design of throttling valves withstands stress, wear and tear while its main purpose is to control the amount of pressure of a fluid that is allowed to pass through. The other name of non-return valves is check valves and its used to allow free flow of a fluid in one direction while at the same time prevent its reversal.

These kinds of valves are seen in drainage systems and pressurized systems. Allowing of maintenance and repair is done by isolation pipes as they are used to temporarily disconnect a part of a piping system. The valves are usually left either in open or fully closed position during the repair process. Crosses are either four way fittings or cross branch lines that have one inlet to three inlets. Fire sprinkler systems are the common usage area of crosses.

The most common pipe fitting is the tee which is used to combine fluid flow. Tee pipe fitting has a variation which is the diverter tee and is used in pressurized hydronic heating system in order to divert the portion of the flow from the main line into a side branch connected to a radiator or heat exchanger. The hydraulic flow requirements of a system is met by a reducer which allows for change in pipe size. Two pipes are connected using a coupling and is comprised of two types; regular and slip.

The categories of plumbing systems include; fuel gas piping, plumbing drainage venting, hydronics, rain water surface, sewage systems ad septic systems. Utilization of water by heating and cooling systems to transport thermal energy is hydronics. Not only do microorganisms destroy systems but also affect negatively the water for use.

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